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Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY: Introduction

Introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy

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atticus essay wpp The following piece was awarded the 2016 Atticus Award in the Under-30 Essay Contest. The prompt was as follows: It’s become more and more common for brands to champion a social purpose greater than their basic function. To take three prominent examples: Apple: To empower creative exploration and pregnancy self-expression. Nike: To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world. Dove: Helping women reconsider and redefine what beauty is. Questions. What is your opinion of the commercial value of thesis, such an approach? And should all brands consider adopting it? “ To glorify God by being a faithful steward of all that is entrusted to us ” Since its founding in 1946, the organization that bears this statement as its guiding purpose has had an enviable trajectory. It’s grown by at least 10% every year, from aqa synoptic questions one location to nearly 2,000.

On average, it generates more revenue from each of these locations than any of introduction of teenage pregnancy, its competitors and more total revenue than many whose real estate footprints are double or triple the size of its own. Its patrons and employees are some of the happiest you’ll find. And although some might liken the consumption of essay gandhi, its product to a religious experience, it is neither a church nor a charity nor a cult. [1] The company? Chick-fil-A. Its creation? Perfectly crisp, tantalizingly moist fried chicken sandwiches.

And in between their not-so-lightly-buttered buns rests all that is introduction thesis of teenage, both powerful and research proposal topics problematic about the philosophy of putting ‘purpose over profit.’ That Chick-fil-A was born alongside clearly articulated ideals is undeniable: founder Truett Cathy’s Southern Baptist roots were (and continue to introduction of teenage pregnancy, be) explicitly and implicitly reflected in the company’s operations, from the Sunday closure of its restaurants to the biblical notion of ‘servant leadership’ that underpins its approach to recruitment, training, and customer service. [2] Nor can one deny Chick-fil-A’s astounding commercial performance it is, by essay gandhi almost any measure, one of the most successful quick-service chains in introduction thesis pregnancy the world. Short Essay. But many have tried to demonstrate a causal link between these truths, and introduction thesis of teenage that’s where things get murky. Putting aside the slight hypocrisy of using the promise of profits to essay jayanti, argue that their pursuit is misguided, the malleable, take-a-leap-of-faith-just-trust-me-it-works nature of thesis of teenage, purpose makes any attempt to scrutinize it futile. Does Airbnb burn with the fire of essay, 30 Silicon Valley unicorns because of thesis of teenage, its aim to gandhi jayanti, change society’s convictions about belonging or because it unearthed a large two-sided marketplace and uses clever accounting practices to introduction thesis pregnancy, essentially operate as a bank? Do people join Google to determinants components savings, organize the world’s information or to catalogue their subsidized massages, daily lunch specials, and generous stock options? Is Chick-fil-A lapping the thesis of teenage competition because of practices causes and effects, God’s glory or because it’s remained private, has a progressive franchising policy, and, heaven forbid, makes a tasty product for which people will pay a modest premium? The postulated benefits of purpose are irresistible: the flexibility to enter and create new markets; the engagement and retention of top talent; sustainable growth rooted in pregnancy enduring relevance. But proving its commercial value ultimately requires taking people’s word for it, and of an essay we know people and marketers especially are fickle creatures. On the one hand, we all seek higher meaning in introduction of teenage our work. On the other, our necks are on essays components savings, the line for selling more shoes or soap or poultry.

Rallying around the introduction idea of purpose is an awfully convenient way of resolving that cognitive dissonance. This is a cynical view, I know. But so is the view that “brand purpose has to be the reason why somebody behind a till comes into work every day.” [3] Last I checked, there were valuable skills to be learned and much brand value to be built (or eroded) from the interactions that take place behind a till. And if executives are (rightfully) questioning the relevance of certain jobs in an algorithmic world, the answer should be frank conversations and opportunities for re-training, not a lofty manifesto that masks an unpleasant reality. The teller is not a moron. Short Story Essay. And lest you think that there can only be upside to implementing an organizational purpose how much harm could some introspection and a few anthemic films really do? think again.

Allowed to run unbridled, a higher-order purpose can set impossible standards for corporate governance and distract from what really matters to a business and its stakeholders. Volkswagen, Wells Fargo, and Chipotle are perennially celebrated as purpose-driven companies, but as their recent brand-breaking scandals suggest, elevating one’s reason-for-being can make the fall from grace that much more painful. And while the inward-facing nature of purpose can lead to valuable reflections about a company’s past and future, it can also insulate firms from immediate realities. Introduction Thesis Of Teenage. As sales of Toyota’s Prius vehicles collapse and those of SUVs and short pickup trucks soar, the appeal of Toyota’s vision for a sustainable society seems to have taken a backseat to thesis pregnancy, cheap petrol. [4] And for brands like Coca Cola, Pepsi, and on disclosure in sweden and effects Hershey, the decision to define themselves as vehicles for joy and escapism rather than as makers of sugary snacks now has them all in an expensive MA scramble to meet people’s desire for healthier options like water, milk, fruit, and nuts. Introduction. [5] In these cases and proposal many others, purpose blinds us to simple product truths. Thesis Pregnancy. We like to think of purpose as some kind of transcendent management principle, but like any product, service, or business idea, its value ultimately depends on its recipients’ desire for it. When Unilever realigned its organization around sustainability (note that purpose can, but need not, manifest itself as CSR), it wasn’t an impulsive act of outline of an, altruism or idealism.

The decision was instead grounded in the recognition that, in of teenage pregnancy many of the example categories in which Unilever operates from food and drink to home and personal care people were becoming more conscious of products’ environmental footprints and the origins of their ingredients. Put simply by CMO Keith Weed: “ We know that consumers want brands with purpose . ” [6] For Weed, the introduction thesis decision to go all-in on purpose was like any good business decision: rooted in human insight, backed by sound strategy, and brought to life through meaningful supply chain and product innovation. The true end-game, then, is coherence : between what people want, what companies make, and how they communicate and behave. Sometimes it will indeed be a higher-order purpose that supplies this coherence. Sometimes it will be a perfectly crisp, made-to-order fried chicken sandwich. More likely than not it will be a bit of both. But rather than presuppose purpose as the be-all-and end-all, I’d put my money on a well-thought-out business strategy, a nimble insights function, and examples smart, valued people who can interpret, calibrate, execute, and lead. This isn’t the romantic narrative that marketers want to hear, but as the average tenure of a CMO falls and the skepticism around their relevance in the boardroom grows, unsubstantiated romanticism must yield to the truth. Thesis. And the truth is that while it’s easy to tell a post-rationalized story about Nike’s or Apple’s or Dove’s devotion to purpose, it’s much harder to replicate the robust organizational and strategic infrastructure that has enabled them to adapt, evolve, and questions grow over of teenage, a period of many decades. Example Of An Outline Of An. One doesn’t transform from a manufacturer of sneakers into introduction of teenage, a developer of software because of some passionate hunch: the teams at Nike tinkered with and tested the possibilities and of an outline essay profitability of introduction thesis of teenage, electronics and biometrics for essay gandhi jayanti, nearly twenty years before finally launching the of teenage pregnancy Nike+ ecosystem. [7] And before you retort with a Steve Jobs or Henry Ford cliche, note that this more responsive, opportunistic interpretation of research examples, purpose only introduction of teenage pregnancy, elevates the importance of innovation, creativity, and intuition.

As data and essays determinants savings countries even insights become commodities, it is the courage to act and the imagination to build upon them that will make a difference. On closer inspection, even our friends at Chick-fil-A are not as pious as their purpose might suggest. In a 2009 interview, current CEO Dan T. Cathy shed light on his father’s original decision to close the company on Sundays: #8220;By the time Sunday came, he was just worn out. And Sunday was not a big trading day, anyway, at the time. So he was closed that first Sunday and we#8217;ve been closed ever since.

He figured if he didn#8217;t like working on Sundays, that other people didn#8217;t either .#8221; [8] Regardless of whether Cathy was honoring God or his own self-interest, he ended up taking care of his people, who in turn took great care of of teenage, their customers. And whether you call it purpose or empathy or market intelligence, understanding and serving people is irrefutably a winning strategy. Essays Practices Causes And Effects. “The purposes of a person#8217;s heart are deep waters, but one who has insight draws them out,” counsels Proverbs 20:5 . For brands, too, it was ever thus.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Here in the

Minnesota Department of Employment and introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy Economic Development. Your resume is an essential part of your job search toolkit and its importance should not be underestimated. You will need one for whatever kind of job you are looking for. If written properly, it's the document that will move you to a job interview and the necklace potential employment. Do not approach the task of writing the thesis pregnancy resume lightly. Causes? By now you should have taken the introduction pregnancy time to identify your hard and soft skills.

If you cannot identify at least 20 job-related skills at this point, your first task is to revisit the aqa synoptic Identifying Your Skills chapter and create your list. Be aware that your resume is never really done. You have to customize it to match the thesis pregnancy qualifications and skills sought by employers for specific jobs. Job seekers start out at aqa synoptic essay, different points when preparing resumes. Some will have a resume a few months or a few years old. Others may have been employed for several years or decades and don't have a current resume, or may have one saved somewhere in introduction an old computer or in short story the necklace a file in their home office. Regardless of where you’re starting in writing a resume you first have to organize and store lots of thesis of teenage, different types of job-related information in an electronic file.

1. Employment History — List all your jobs for the past 10 to essays determinants developing, 15 years in a reverse chronological order, with dates of employment and various positions held within various companies. If you have held a lot of introduction thesis of teenage, jobs or have had a varied job career, list the last three or four jobs and short skip your earlier career, or shorten it into a single line: “U.S. Bank, Minneapolis, MN, teller, 2005-2010.” 2. Skills — Take the list of the 20 job-related skills you identified using the information in Chapter 3. Future employers want to know what skills you displayed in your work and whether those skills saved money, improved efficiency, led to a more motivated workforce, or whatever. Ask yourself these questions: What skills did I use in my previous positions? Are they important to the employers or jobs that I am considering? 3. Accomplishments/Achievements — Penelope Trunk, the job search author, encourages you to look at your past jobs and “list achievements, not job duties … anyone can do a job, but achievements show you did the job well.” A case in point is when a job seeker writes: “Managed two people and of teenage created a tracking system for marketing.” Instead, consider this: “Managed the team that built a tracking system to decrease marketing costs 10 percent.” The second example obviously sounds more impressive. Using accomplishment statements helps the hiring authority understand how you made a positive impact on business operations or outcomes. Mark Zappa, who works at the Minnesota WorkForce Center, points out that an accomplishment can be an actual testimonial from a supervisor — a nice break from the usual standard resume information. Research Examples? An accomplishment statement might read: “Identified learning resources and developed productive partnerships within a closed, individual-driven department.”

4. Job Search Goals — Establish clear objectives for your search. What kind of introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, company do you want to work for? What size? In what field? What sorts of jobs are you seeking? After you complete these steps, you’ll have a list of your previous job titles, dates of employment, the employer’s name and essay address and a list of at least 20 of your job-related hard and soft skills. A good resume has critical content elements that must be complete and compelling. There are a few general guidelines for showcasing your experience and skills on just one or two pages of text. Resumes are fairly predictable in features and introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy information, but some choices have to be made.

They are not typically documents used to essays on disclosure, show off your innovative design or creative writing skills. The one exception to this rule might be if you're pursuing work in a creative field. Introduction Thesis Pregnancy? Yet even then these resumes must remain cautiously creative. Now we're going to deconstruct a resume, section by section, and even line by topics, line. We'll start at the top, end at the bottom. Don't worry about the introduction of teenage final look or format of your resume just yet. Start with the topics core content. Introduction Thesis Of Teenage Pregnancy? After you have this core information, you can fine tune or customize each resume for each job opening.

This is called targeting your resume. There are two types of and effects, fonts, serif and sans serif. Serif fonts have tails or feet and of teenage sans serif fonts do not. Use a serif font for your name because that style often looks more prominent. For the rest of your resume, pick a font that's easy to read in print and online.

Resumes that use a sans serif font may scan better and subsequently look better when the essays employer retrieves them from their applicant tracking system database. Put your full first and introduction of teenage last names on its own line at gandhi, the top of the page. Introduction Thesis Of Teenage? Choose your favorite professional-looking font. For ideas, look at the list to your left of gandhi, common, readable fonts that work well for resumes. Your name can be in a different font than the body of the resume. Type your name in bold or CAPITAL LETTERS to make it stand out, and make it larger point type than the body of the introduction of teenage pregnancy resume. Your address should not contain abbreviations. Story The Necklace? Include all 10 digits of your landline phone or mobile number. Thesis Pregnancy? It should be a number where you can be reached at all times.

Use a professional personal email address. Some job seekers have an examples topics email address that is solely used for their job search. If applicable, also include your LinkedIn profile address. You may hyperlink these links to make it easy for pregnancy an employer to contact you by aqa synoptic essay questions, email. 1443 HireMe Lane. Employmentville, Minnesota 55555. Include an objective when you are pursuing a specific job goal and when you know the exact title of the position you are applying for.

The objective statement helps target your resume. When applying for a specific job, use the title in your objective and even add the introduction pregnancy name of the the necklace essay company as in the following example: Objective: Landscape Design Specialist at Creative Environments Inc. Of Teenage? Some online job application forms and job posting websites require an example of an outline of an objective statement. Here are a few examples of objective statements that indicate precisely what kind of position the job seeker wants. Customer service representative Manufacturing sales representative Office manager Senior admissions and enrollment officer. Your resume should include an effective Summary Section that briefly highlights your recent work experience (including industries you've worked in), applicable certifications, achievements and skills that best match the position for which you are applying. That means you'll have a customized Summary Section for each job you apply for.

The summary should be slightly longer than the objective statement, containing two to four lines or a series of phrases and can be used instead or combined with an pregnancy objective statement. Name this section Professional Summary, Professional Profile, Summary of Qualification, Career Summary or Career Profile. Below are two examples: Objective: Landscape Architect. Summary: Certified and innovative Landscape Architect with extensive knowledge in construction, engineering and design. Recognized for creatively solving design and proposal topics sustainability challenges, reducing project management expenses by 25 percent and having a positive, customer-focused attitude. Certified Nursing Assistant with over two years long-term care experience caring for elderly and vulnerable adults. Excellent client care; works well with bedridden, physically-challenged and memory-impaired residents. Introduction Of Teenage? Commended for superior safety and attendance record. Friendly, caring and compassionate, with excellent interpersonal communication skills. Flexible: available days, evenings, weekends and holidays.

Maintains confidential information. Include a skills section to on disclosure in sweden causes, quickly and effectively communicate your experience and make yourself stand out from other applicants. Introduction Pregnancy? Match your skills (used in volunteer and paid positions) from the list you have already created with the gandhi jayanti requirements and of teenage pregnancy preferences included in the job posting. Essays Determinants Savings? Formats for skill lists include: 1. Bullet Point List with Results. Format your skill section as a list of bullet points- that is introduction of teenage three lines to five lines long.

Limit each entry to two lines. Aqa Synoptic Essay? Choose action verbs that demonstrate responsibility. For example, managed, coordinated or designed. Vary the action verbs that you choose. This helps make your abilities sound more diverse and thesis pregnancy adds depth to your resume. Use the list of action verbs provided in essays determinants components savings developing this chapter and in the job opening itself for ideas. Introduction? Review your list of accomplishment statements to quantify your results. 2. Essays On Disclosure Practices And Effects? Grouping Skills by Topic. Consider grouping your skills as job-specific qualifications below headlines such as Accounting Qualifications, Consulting Qualifications or Teaching Qualifications.

Relate your skills and work within that profession, with perhaps a general skill or two. This format is often used to list your competency using computers. Employers presume that applicants are proficient with word processing, spreadsheet usage and email applications, but if these skills are listed in of teenage the job opening, include them on your resume, Consider listing specific names of business applications (such as Excel 2010, SharePoint 2013 or Salesforce) or industry specific skills (such as CNC machine tools or types of CAD software). Use a bulleted list, three to five lines long. List your most recent employment first. A general standard is to chronologically list in reverse order the essays on disclosure causes and effects last three to four jobs or those you have had over the past 10 years.

Name the employer, location, your official position and the years you worked there. Of Teenage Pregnancy? If you have worked for only one employer in questions the last decade or more, show your recent promotions. If your job title did not change in introduction of teenage pregnancy the last decade you can still show job progression by showcasing how you took on more complex job tasks and increased responsibilities. How much information should you give about your past jobs? Focus on what you did and your accomplishments in various positions. Make your employment history sound more impactful by using action words such as maintained, led, worked, performed, developed, directed, established, functioned, monitored and trained. Use bullet points and make your sentences one line. Story The Necklace Essay? Sentence fragments like specialized in training employees to introduction of teenage pregnancy, use proprietary software that resulted in a 15 percent reduction in data entry errors work fine. List no more than four to savings countries, six bullet points in describing your last job. Then use two to introduction, three points for subsequent positions.

Although contact information is typically given on essays determinants savings, an application or reference sheet, many resumes still list the introduction of teenage employer name, city and state. Other job seekers might limit this information to of an of an essay, keep the introduction thesis resume focused on essays on disclosure practices causes, skills, accomplishments and qualifications that best match the job opening. The choice is yours. There is no single standard that fits all situations. If you are a first-time job seeker or re-entering the workforce after a gap in employment, use this section to emphasize professional capabilities, but still include some past employment or volunteer history. Job seekers with established job search goals often seek out introduction thesis of teenage a volunteer opportunity that is a close match to the paid job that they want. If more of your skills and experience come from examples topics, employment, list employment first and education last. List education first if you are a student, recent graduate, or pursuing a career with educational emphasis. Include the pregnancy name of the institution, location (city and state), graduation date or projected graduation date, degree(s) earned, field of study and GPA (if over 3.0).

If you haven't been to school in years, you can list education after your professional experience and skip the year you graduated to avoid potential age discrimination. You also can list relevant training or certifications that might impress employers or relate to the position you're applying for. For job seekers who did not graduate from undergraduate or graduate programs, a simple disclosure is best: Attended the University of Minnesota, 2010-2013. It shows you have ambition even though you didn't graduate. If you never went to essay gandhi jayanti, college or finished high school you can list yourself as a high school graduate as long as you have a GED or another type of introduction thesis of teenage, high school equivalency certificate. List the name of the school, school district or state where you earned the GED or high school equivalency certificate. Do not include an essays savings countries education section if you did not finish high school and had no formal training either in introduction of teenage school or from an employer. Individuals currently taking classes or pursuing a degree related to their job goal should include that information.

List the skills acquired, academic accomplishments and the projected date of completion. List organizational memberships related to your job goal. Short Essay? Avoid using non-employer-related or controversial organizations. Introduction Thesis Of Teenage Pregnancy? Don't mention specific religious or political affiliations or other potentially controversial groups unless they directly relate to the job you want. Include military experience on your resume as part of your work history. If you are targeting a job within the essay defense industry, feel free to use military jargon. The defense industry likes candidates who understand the lingo.

If you are targeting a job outside of the defense arena, you will need to civilianize your military language to introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, show that your skills and experience match the employer's needs. See the Transferring Military Skills document for a list of military-to-civilian job skills. Volunteer experience can fill in any gaps in employment. It can demonstrate responsibility and help highlight skills that may not have been used in your work career. Served as an officer of the PTA? Or a coach at aqa synoptic questions, your children's school? That shows leadership, even if your career may not have offered you any opportunities in leadership roles. Include hobbies and personal interests if they're employment-related, not controversial, and show skills and experience.

Do not include your references or the phrase references available on request on the actual resume. It is assumed by introduction, employers that you will provide this information if requested. Once an employer asks for determinants savings developing countries your references, provide the names and contact information of three to five people who can speak favorably about your attributes. Let the employer know of any awards or recognition you have received (employee of the month, industry awards, and so forth). Those are accomplishments worthy of mention. Targeted resumes are a necessity for most job openings. Why? Busy employers and networking contacts plus improved technology have changed the way resumes are written and used in a job search. Your resume has to communicate a lot of information in the 10-second glance it gets from thesis pregnancy, a networking contact or a prospective employer. If the proposal examples employer uses an applicant tracking system (ATS) it first has to successfully pass electronic screening and resume ranking before it is introduction thesis of teenage read by the hiring authority. Aqa Synoptic Essay? Your resume might be in for a rocky trip before you are selected for an interview for a job opening.

It takes more time to write a targeted resume that includes important keywords, but it is pregnancy well worth the effort. Use keywords such as industry jargon and words commonly found in titles of jobs for positions you are applying for. The keywords in your targeted resume will help you stand out in an ATS because it's set up to identify specific skills of applicants. Essay? These software programs help an employer identify individuals with certain traits and backgrounds that fit job openings. Many of these systems accept more resume copy than you typically can fit on a one- or two-page resume. Use this opportunity to of teenage pregnancy, include more of your relevant experience and essays on disclosure in sweden skills. Thesis Pregnancy? Avoid putting keywords in white around the margins of your resume because eventually, your ATS resume will be read by hiring decision makers.

An ATS allows companies to avoid having to look at countries, hundreds of resumes, many from thesis of teenage pregnancy, people poorly qualified. If the targeted position is research unavailable, your resume may be stored in another section of the ATS database called a Talent Management System. Highlight your desire for a specific job and to be considered for other related openings in your cover letter. That gives your resume a chance to be found in the Talent Management System later and indicates the pregnancy flexibility many employers seek. You have all the story essay core content to build an attractive and multipurpose targeted resume. Use any one of thesis of teenage pregnancy, a number of aqa synoptic essay, resume templates to create a visually pleasing and easy to read resume document. After you have completed the resume, you will have the flexibility to distribute your resume in plain text, save it as a PDF, send it as an email attachment, cut and paste sections of it for of teenage online job applications, or print it for networking meetings, postal-mail job applications or an interview. Your targeted resume with keywords should be used when you have a networking contact meeting or cold-call prospective employers. If you have worked in an industry, your resume will showcase your knowledge of that industry's keywords.

If you are changing careers, looking for an entry-level job or re-entering the workforce, you'll need to research a specific employer's or an industry's needs. Essay Gandhi Jayanti? Sources of information include company websites, position descriptions, employer profiles on thesis of teenage, social media sites, industry publications, other networking contacts and of an outline essay informational interviews. Use this information to introduction thesis of teenage, adjust your skills and experience content to fall within the needs of the story essay employer or industry. Your targeted resume will quickly and effectively communicate your experience, skills and job search goals to introduction, a networking contact or prospective employer. Giving networking contacts your resume containing targeted content helps your contacts better understand what they can do for essay questions you. These contacts are pipelines to what is called a warm referral - that personal connection to introduction, another contact or an employer who has a job opening.

Networking is essays determinants components savings countries strongly advocated by job search experts because personal contact has a history of leading to a new job. When applying for a job, you will fine tune your targeted resume to mirror the requirements of that specific job opening. Your content must include not only your relevant experience and skills that the employer wants, but the keywords used in the job opening announcement. Thesis Of Teenage Pregnancy? Your job is to show that your qualifications and experience match what the employer is seeking because employers look for resumes where the applicant has all (or nearly all) of the qualifications and experience that are in of an outline essay the job posting. Start by carefully reading the job posting. Job postings tend to follow a pattern. Employers usually summarize the job responsibilities followed by the required and preferred qualifications for all applicants. Look for the most important requirements at the top of the job posting and the least important at the bottom.

Targeted resumes that use the same words that the of teenage pregnancy employer used to summarize the job responsibilities, qualifications and skills have a better chance of essay gandhi, moving forward through an ATS or a manual candidate screening process. Resumes should be sent to a specific person. Introduction Pregnancy? Use their name. Avoid sending the resume to a job title such as Production Manager. It will take extra effort, but do your research and find out the name and title of the appropriate person to whom your resume should be sent. If asked, send your resume to essays determinants components savings, human resources.

Then also send a resume to the person in charge of the department in introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy which you want to work. Story The Necklace? Most of the time, human resources do the screening, but it's the pregnancy department manager who is the essay final hiring authority. When mailing your resume, always send it with a cover letter. Mass-mailing your resume to employers does not work. The statistics are that for every 1,000 resumes you send to employers you can expect to get two interviews. Target a smaller pool of employers instead of haphazardly mass mailing to introduction of teenage, a random list of names. Follow up your resume submissions with a phone call to the employer. Story Essay? Be courteous, professional and persistent about introduction of teenage, selling your qualifications. Aqa Synoptic? Be sure to ask for an interview. When directly contacting employers, always have a copy of your resume available and take the initiative to offer it to introduction thesis of teenage, them.

Always bring extra copies of your resume when directly contacting employers. When applying for essay gandhi a job with a paper employment application, attaching your resume is a good idea. The resume will add impact and should complement the application. If you're asked to fill out an application, never write on it See resume. Filling out the entire application is still required. Give a copy of your resume to introduction pregnancy, your references. It provides them with information about you and will help them to talk to an employer about your qualifications. Hand or send emailed copies of research examples topics, your resume to all networking contacts. It's an excellent ice breaker to use the resume as a center for discussing your qualifications. Ask your contacts to critique your resume.

Finally, follow-up, follow-up, follow-up. It's no use mailing resumes if you don't take the time to try to directly speak to introduction thesis of teenage, companies. Story? The true test of an effective resume is thesis that you're offered interviews. If you aren't getting responses or interviews from your resume, you may want to re-evaluate it. View the samples/templates below to create your own resume:

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Structured Error Handling in VFP 8. By Markus Egger. Markus is the founder and publisher of CODE Magazine and pregnancy is EPS President and Chief Software Architect. He is also a Microsoft RD (Regional Director) and the one of the practices in sweden causes, longest (if not THE longest) running Microsoft MVP (Most Valuable Professional). Markus is also a renowned speaker and author. With the introduction of Visual FoxPro 3.0, error handling in VFP changed substantially. Rather than using on error statements, state of the of teenage pregnancy, art error events became available. Now, 7 years later, more sophisticated error handling mechanisms take center stage as Visual FoxPro 8.0 introduces structured error handling. Handling potential errors in the most graceful way has been a goal of software developers since the very early days of programming, and the quest for the perfect methodology is still ongoing. FoxPro and gandhi Visual FoxPro have gone through a number of introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy different ways to handle errors (all of which are still available today and are useful for different scenarios). The most traditional way to handle errors in practices causes and effects FoxPro (and even in FoxBase, before) was the ON ERROR statement.

This command tells FoxPro what to thesis pregnancy, do in case of an aqa synoptic, error. Arguably one of the thesis, most common scenarios would be to call a procedure that handles an error in the following fashion: Each Try-block needs to have at essays determinants components savings developing countries least a CATCH or a FINALLY block. Or, you might use a slightly more sophisticated version, as suggested by the Visual FoxPro documentation: Of course, in the object-oriented world that Visual FoxPro lives in, this is a very procedural way to handle things. Thesis Of Teenage! Luckily, the ON ERROR command can evaluate any Visual FoxPro expression, including calling methods on components savings developing, an object: This approach works rather well in scenarios where a global error handler is used. However, this type of of teenage pregnancy error handler is generally not used in an object-oriented environment. Gandhi Jayanti! There are a number of reasons for this. First of all, in order to create black-box objects, those objects have to handle their own errors to conform to the rules of object-oriented development.

However, to make those objects handle their own errors, we would have to set up an error handler like so: Unfortunately, this doesn't work, because whatever is introduction thesis specified as the ON ERROR statement will run as if it were a separate procedure. In other words, this line of code will run outside the object. Therefore, the THIS pointer is not valid. Another issue is that the ON ERROR statement would not be scoped to the object. Consider the following example: In this particular example, the components developing, first line instructs VFP to ignore all errors (the error statement is an asterisk, which is a comment line).

Then, the Example object gets instantiated, and its constructor ( Init ()), sets the error statement to THIS.HandleErrors (for now, let's just assume that would be a valid line of thesis pregnancy code). After the object is story the necklace instantiated, a line of code with a syntax error (xxxxxxx) executes, raising an thesis of teenage pregnancy, error. The question is: What error handler will handle that error? Since we now know that ON ERROR is not scoped to objects, we also know that the determinants components savings, error is handled by THIS.HandleErrors. Thesis Of Teenage! Clearly, even if that would call a method on of an of an, the right object, this wouldn't be desired, since the object has no knowledge about how to handle errors that may occur outside the object. Similarly, error handlers defined after the object is instantiated would throw off error handling within the object. Neither scenario will allow us to of teenage pregnancy, create black box objects. One possible solution would be to create an essay questions, object devoted to error handling. This object could be created when the main object gets instantiated. However, to make this work, the new object would have to introduction thesis pregnancy, be referenced through a public variable so it could be referenced (again, THIS.oError.HandleErrors() would not work).

This could lead to collisions with other objects that employ the topics, same approach. Also, each individual method would have to set the error handler to that handler object, and reset it back not only when the introduction pregnancy, method completed, but also every time the object called out to other code (which may or may not use a similar approach). This certainly would be an error-prone solution. Let's not even investigate it any more, although I could point out the necklace essay, a long list of other problems. Clearly, a better way to handle errors was required. For this reason, Visual FoxPro 3.0 (the first Visual version of introduction of teenage pregnancy FoxPro and also the components savings developing countries, first version that supported object-oriented development) introduced an Error() event. Using that mechanism, errors could be handled in the following fashion: The idea here is simple: Whenever an error occurs anywhere within the object, the Error() event will fire. If the error occurred anywhere outside the object, it will be handled by introduction thesis of teenage, whatever error handler is essays and effects defined there. In our example, the syntax error in the Init() method will be handled by introduction, the Error() method, and short essay the syntax error in the line of code after the thesis of teenage pregnancy, CreateObject() will be handled by the ON ERROR error handler (which will actually hide the error). This mechanism has a number of advantages.

First of all, it allows building self-contained objects. Secondly, it splits the gigantic task of handling errors globally, into smaller, more digestible pieces. Essay Gandhi! No longer are we dealing with handling a very large number of errors. For instance, if the object at of teenage pregnancy hand doesn't deal with database tables, we probably don't have to worry about handling any database errors. However, this approach also has some problems. For example, it still may be handling errors on a scale much larger than we want.

Objects can be large and story the necklace do a large number of different things, each of which may have only a very limited number of scenarios that may go wrong. Thesis! In total, however, the essay, object might require a very complex error handler. Another problem is that this type of error handler makes it very difficult to exit gracefully whenever an error has occurred. Consider the following example: The idea behind this simplified example is that the WordExport object can be used to introduction pregnancy, create a Word document on jayanti, the fly. To do so, the introduction pregnancy, developer simply instantiates this object and passes some text to the Export() method.

The method then opens an proposal, instance of introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy Word, makes it visible, creates a new document and exports the essay questions, text. What would happen if the user actually closed Word right after a new document has been created (right after the pregnancy, Documents.Add() line)? Well, the next two lines of code would both cause an error (and so would hundreds of other lines if this was a life-size example). But what could our error handler do to gandhi jayanti, solve the problem? Well, beyond displaying the pregnancy, error in a message box, the error handler could try to fix the problem. Essay! However, this is unlikely in thesis pregnancy this case, because in order to do that, the examples topics, method would have to start over from scratch. Since that isn't something the error handler could do easily, it can choose to ignore the error and introduction thesis proceed with the determinants savings, next line of code, which would then cause another error that could also be ignored, and so forth. Another option would be to issue a RETRY, which would run the line that failed again, causing another error, which would result in an endless loop if the handler just tried to RETRY again.

The only other option we have would be to CANCEL, which would shut down the whole process and not just the current method. Note also, that the method returns .T., which is the way I would like things to be if the thesis, document got created successfully. Example Of An Of An! However, I would like the method to return .F. if there was a problem. This isn't so easy, since the Error() event doesn't have any access to the return value of this method. One possible solution would be a local ON ERROR statement instead of the error method: This is an acceptable solution, but there are difficulties with this approach.

First of all, the method might call out to other methods that may reset the error handler or point to a different handler. This is a problem that is hard to thesis of teenage, avoid, since you may not have control over other code that is running. Also, at a later point in time, someone may want to add an example outline, Error() method to this object (perhaps to handle errors that may occur in other methods). The problem with that is that the error method takes precedence over the ON ERROR handler, hence rendering the introduction, ON ERROR useless. To solve these issues, Visual FoxPro 8.0 introduces Structured Error Handling. Developing Countries! This approach allows the developer to wrap a series of commands into a block that is handled by a local error handler. Of Teenage! The advantage of this error handler is that it usually handles a very limited set of potential problems, making it simple and straightforward. This is the basic syntax for structured error handling in Visual FoxPro: Let's see how we could re-work the essay gandhi, above example into a scenario handled by a Try/Catch block:

As we can see, this is a much simpler way to implement the of teenage pregnancy, solution. First of all, it is simply much less kludgy and is a very clean implementation. But more importantly, it is causes and effects a much superior implementation from a technical point of view. The solution is not influenced by outside error handling. Also, we have full control over what is to happen if an error does occur. Unlike in the example with the error event, we can write code within our method that executes no matter whether an error occurred or not, making it easy to set the return value to thesis, our liking. Proposal Topics! (We were able to do this in thesis the previous example, but the solution was error prone and easy to break by running it in different environments). Try/Catch blocks can be nested to achieve more granular error handling.

I'm sure that by now you already have a good idea about what Try/Catch does: Whatever code we run inside a Try-block will execute until an topics, error occurs. If an error does in fact occur, the Catch-block is executed. Of Teenage Pregnancy! Note that the try block stops executing as soon as an of an of an essay, error occurs. There is no way to retry or ignore the error. If that's what you would like to do, Try/Catch error handling is not the right solution. Note that the thesis of teenage pregnancy, Catch-block is never executed if no error occurs. Sometimes you might want to define code that runs as cleanup code, whether an error occurred or not. Here is an example: In this example, we shut down Word, even if something went wrong. Note however, that the error may have occurred before Word ever got instantiated.

Therefore we need to first check whether Word is an object. (Actually, things may be a little trickier with automation objects, especially Word, but for simplicity we'll leave it at that.) At this point you may wonder why we need a Finally-block. After all, we could have put that code after the ENDTRY and would have achieved an identical result. Proposal Examples! However, there are scenarios that can greatly benefit from using the finally-block (which we will examine further down), making the thesis, use of FINALLY a good idea in general. One last remark about the essay jayanti, basic Try/Catch structure: Each Try-block needs to have at thesis of teenage least a CATCH or a FINALLY block. Therefore, you can not just say try this, and I don't care of it works or not since I can't do anything about a potential problem anyway.

If you would like to do that, you can create a Catch-block that has nothing but a comment. A scenario like this may be desired within an error handler: This example also demonstrates one of the practices in sweden causes and effects, key features of structured error handling: Nested Try/Catch blocks. Try/Catch blocks can be nested to achieve more granular error handling. There may be a Try/Catch block around the thesis, entire application, there may be Try/Catch blocks wrapping entire methods, then there may be individual blocks, and so forth. Let's enhance our Word example a little more and instead of story the necklace essay creating a blank document, we will create a new one based on a certain template:

In this example, the introduction pregnancy, inner Try/Catch block traps only errors that may occur while a new document is on disclosure causes and effects created based on introduction thesis pregnancy, the specified template. Presumably, if that template doesn't exist, an error will be raised and caught by the Catch-block, which will create a blank document. The code then proceeds as planned. Note that the on disclosure causes, Catch-block may raise another error that will then be handled by introduction of teenage, the outer Catch-block (which simply sets the research proposal topics, return value and gives up). There is one potential problem here. We are assuming that the introduction thesis, error has been caused by the fact that the template doesn't exist. Essay Jayanti! But of course, there could be a number of other scenarios causing other problems. For instance, the thesis pregnancy, problem could be caused by the user closing Word right after it became visible (yes, they'd have to be very quick, but hey, this is only an jayanti, example!). In our little example, this wouldn't be a problem.

Worst case, the Catch-block fails again and defaults to the outer handler, which will handle the situation appropriately. However, in many complex scenarios, we would have to look at additional error information and thesis of teenage handle the situation appropriately. Visual FoxPro has a number of functions to retrieve error information, such as Message(). However, those functions are not really adequate to make this bullet-proof, since nested errors make things a bit complicated. For this reason, Microsoft introduced an Exception object. The exception object can be invoked simply by short the necklace essay, using it on the CATCH statement:

This will make an object named oException available within the Catch-block. This object has a number of properties, such as ErrorNo , Message , LineNo , Details , LineContents , and more. Using this construct, we can use the introduction thesis of teenage, following syntax to check for errors caused by the template only: In this example, we handle only error 1429, which is the one that is raised if the research proposal examples topics, template wasn't there. The question is: What do we do with all other errors? Well, basically, we want it to be handled the same way all other errors are handled within the outer Try-block. Thesis Of Teenage! Therefore, we need to elevate the error to that level. We can do so using the THROW statement.

This will re-throw the error, causing it to be handled by the outer Catch-block. (Exceptions elevated using a THROW statement will end up as user exceptions in the outer error handler. See below for more information.) The WHEN clause of the example of an outline of an essay, CATCH statement can utilize any valid Visual FoxPro expression. This is a pretty simple example. All we really check for is the thesis of teenage, error number. But, imagine we check for determinants components savings other conditions. For instance, we could try to find another template, or download it from somewhere, and so forth.

If all of those attempts fail, we would re-throw the error. If all we wanted to introduction thesis, check was the error number, though, we could do something even simpler: This will catch only error 1429. All other errors will be automatically elevated to the outer error handler, if there is one. Otherwise, the default VFP error dialog would be shown. Therefore, this is aqa synoptic questions a shortcut that is functionally identical to introduction thesis, the version shown in the previous example (except that the exception elevated to the outer handler will not be a user error). What makes this feature very powerful is that there can be a number of different catch-blocks: Note that catch blocks are evaluated from top to bottom, and only one of them will run. Essays On Disclosure Practices Causes And Effects! Therefore, the chosen sequence is thesis of teenage important. If we change this example to example of an outline of an essay, the following, we would see unexpected (or expected after you read this article) results:

In this scenario, only the first catch-block will ever be executed, because it is introduction of teenage so generic, it will catch all the essays determinants components, errors and the subsequent catch statements will never be evaluated. The WHEN clause of the CATCH statement can utilize any valid Visual FoxPro expression. Note, however, that to avoid having an erroneous catch statement you shouldn't make these statements too complex. As we have seen in previous examples, the new THROW command can be used to of teenage, elevate errors the error handler chooses not to handle, so an outer error handler (perhaps another Catch-block, or some other type of error handler) can attempt to handle the error. What's not as obvious is that THROW can be used to raise custom errors, allowing us to architect our applications in an entirely different fashion. Listing 1 shows an example for this technique.

In this example, we have a class called CreditCard that simulates a credit card charging object. Countries! This object is rather simple. Thesis Of Teenage! All it has is one method called ChargeCard (), and all that method does is check if the passed credit card number is 12345678. If so, the card is considered valid. This is a simplistic example, but all we are really interested in is the error handling. So let's see what happens when the card number is gandhi jayanti invalid. First of all, the ChargeCard() method instantiates a class called CreditCardException and passes some detailed error information to introduction thesis, its constructor.

This class is defined a little further down and research examples is a simple subclass of the new Visual FoxPro Exception base class. It has a few overridden properties, and one additional one that gets set based on the value passed to the constructor. Once that object is instantiated, the thesis, CreditCard class raises an error (exception) using the THROW command and gandhi jayanti the new exception object as the expression. Introduction Thesis! This will immediately halt the execution of the ChargeCard() method, and invoke whatever error handler is currently in short essay use. What's not as obvious is that THROW can be used to raise custom errors, allowing us to architect our applications in an entirely different fashion.

So now let's work our way back up towards the beginning of this listing to see how this code is invoked. The listing starts out introduction, with the instantiation of the credit card object and a call to the ChargeCard() method. The parameter passed to this method represents an essays savings developing countries, invalid credit card (error handling is easier to demonstrate if things fail). Introduction Thesis Pregnancy! All of this is wrapped into a Try/Catch block. Note that the Catch-block traps for essay gandhi error 2071. All user-thrown exceptions end up as error 2071. In this particular example, those are all the errors we are really interested in. Thesis Of Teenage! Of course, there could be other errors occurring, and those are caught by the second Catch-block. In a larger example, there could also be an outer error handler so we wouldn't have to worry about that possibility.

The second Catch-block is not required and I just included it because I'd consider it good form. So what exactly happens when a user-thrown error occurs and our Catch-block kicks in? Well, first of all, there could be a number of different user-thrown errors, and we are not interested in on disclosure in sweden causes any of them other than our custom exception. The user defined information is stored in a property called UserValue, which is a variant and could be anything. Thesis Of Teenage Pregnancy! In our case, it is another exception object, since that's what we threw, but it could be a string or any other value if the exception was thrown in the following manner: Since we threw an object, we can now check for detailed information on that object, such as the essays practices in sweden causes and effects, error number or perhaps even the class. If we discover error number 10001 (which is our custom error number), we can handle it. Otherwise, it is a different user-thrown error, and we really do not know what to introduction thesis pregnancy, do at all, so we simply elevate the error to the next level by essay, re-throwing it. Note that this example is introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy not bullet-proof.

The following line of code may, in fact, cause other errors: If UserValue is not an object, or if it is an of an of an essay, object but doesn't have a property called ErrorNo , this would result in yet another exception, which would be thrown to an outer exception handler. Note that the introduction, outer exception handler would receive a FoxPro error, and short essay not the user thrown error, which would not be a good thing at all. At this point, you may wonder how UserValue could be an object but not have that property. The reason is simple: Just like one can throw a string or a number as the user value, one could throw any type of thesis of teenage pregnancy object as the example outline, user value. The thrown object doesn't have to be subclassed from Exception . One of the gotchas with this type of architecture is that youi should really use Try/Catch blocks to catch these user thrown errors. Technically, you can use ON ERROR to catch our CreditCardException, but it is a bit trickier to do so since no error object is available. One last word of caution: The use of a THROW statement will always end up as a user thrown error. This means that if you intend to elevate an error from within a catch block to an outer error handler, you may be re-throwing a system error, but it will end up as a user error in the next-level error handler.

The original (system) exception object will end up as the UserValue . Of course, to handle these situations correctly, the outer exception handler needs to be aware of introduction thesis pregnancy this. Mixing Error Handling Methodologies. Structured error handling is great and will replace traditional error handling in most scenarios. In fact, some modern languages like C# have only structured error handling. However, there are some downsides to research examples topics, structured error handling, such as no intrinsic retry capability. Thesis Pregnancy! Also, in many scenarios, pre-existing, non-structured error handling may be in proposal examples place. So let's look at a few examples of mixed error handling and the effects it may have on your code. Introduction! Let's start out determinants components, with a simple one:

In this example, we define an ON ERROR statement within a Try/Catch block (xxxxx always represents some kind of error in these examples). What would we expect to of teenage, happen here? Most people I present this to would expect the ON ERROR to handle the first problem, and proposal the Catch-block to handle the second error. Introduction Thesis! This is not the case! The Catch-block takes precedence over aqa synoptic essay, the ON ERROR and thesis of teenage pregnancy handles both exceptions. At this point, you may wonder why one would ever define an ON ERROR inside a Try/Catch. In real-world environments, this is a rather common scenario.

Consider this example: The Try/Catch wraps a simple call to determinants savings developing countries, another function (or method). That function apparently has its own error handling using the old ON ERROR methodology. However, the local error handling mechanism used by introduction of teenage pregnancy, that function is now taken hostage by our Catch-block. As you can imagine, this may result in some surprising behavior. We can produce a similar example using the Error() method: In this example, we are also calling another method that has a local error handler. However, this time the result is opposite from the previous example.

The Error() event takes precedence over the Try/Catch and handles the error inside the gandhi, called object. So what would happen if we added some structured error handling to thesis of teenage, the TestClass object? In this example, the new Try/Catch will handle the error since it has been defined at a higher level of granularity. An interesting question here is, What happens if that Catch-block re-throws the error? In this example, the Error() method will get a chance to handle the re-thrown error. The outer error handler will not have the aqa synoptic questions, opportunity to handle the introduction pregnancy, exception, because it is not possible to elevate the error from within the the necklace essay, Error() method because the exception object is not available there.

The only option would be to throw a custom error. I still owe you an explanation of the FINALLY statement. In many scenarios, it may seem as if FINALLY may not really be required, since the flow of the program is likely to continue after the Try/Catch section. Introduction Of Teenage Pregnancy! Likely is the key term here. Determinants Components! If a potential error is thesis pregnancy not handled in a Catch-block (either because there isn't a matching Catch-block or because another exception is THROWn), code after the Try/Catch statements may not be executed at all. Of An Outline! Consider this example: In this example, the syntax error in introduction thesis the Try-block is caught by of an, the Catch-block, just to be re-thrown again. This means that the very last MessageBox() will never be executed. However, the MessageBox() in the Finally-block will be executed in every case, even if no exception occurred. Structured Error Handling is one of the of teenage, most important language enhancements Visual FoxPro has seen in a while. It is very powerful and helps you tremendously in your attempts to produce bullet-proof code.

If you have any questions about this technology, feel free to email me. Visual Studio .NET uses a very similar mechanism as Visual FoxPro 8.0. As one would expect, due to aqa synoptic essay questions, .NET's integral thread-safety, the mechanism there is a little more structured, but also a little less flexible. For instance, VFP8 can throw any variable or object as a custom error. In .NET, only thesis of teenage pregnancy, exception objects can be thrown. On the other hand, there .NET doesn't differentiate between user errors and system errors, which has advantages as well. Listing 1: Raising a custom exception. Markus is the founder and publisher of CODE Magazine and is EPS President and Chief Software Architect. He is on disclosure in sweden causes and effects also a Microsoft RD (Regional Director) and the one of the introduction pregnancy, longest (if not THE longest) running Microsoft MVP (Most Valuable Professional). Aqa Synoptic Essay Questions! Markus is also a renowned speaker and author.

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analog cover letter Analog phone lines. Of Teenage. Analog signals. Digital security. Digital PBX. Analog-to-digital adapters. What does it all mean? In the telecom world, understanding analog versus digital isn't as simple as comparing one technology to another. It depends on what product#151;and in some cases, which product feature#151;you happen to be talking about. Analog at a glance. As a technology, analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal (in most cases, the human voice) and proposal translating it into introduction of teenage electronic pulses. Digital on research proposal examples topics, the other hand is breaking the signal into a binary format where the audio or video data is represented by a series of 1s and 0s.

Simple enough when it's the device#151;analog or digital phone, fax, modem, or likewise#151;that does all the converting for you. Is one technology better than the of teenage pregnancy other? Analog technology has been around for decades. It's not that complicated a concept and it's fairly inexpensive to use. That's why we can buy a $20 telephone or watch a few TV stations with the use of a well-placed antenna.

The trouble is, analog signals have size limitations as to essay questions how much data they can carry. Introduction Thesis Pregnancy. So with our $20 phones and inexpensive TVs, we only get so much. The newer of the research examples two, digital technology breaks your voice (or television) signal into binary code#151;a series of 1s and 0s#151;transfers it to the other end where another device (phone, modem or TV) takes all the introduction thesis of teenage numbers and reassembles them into the original signal. Questions. The beauty of of teenage, digital is essay gandhi jayanti that it knows what it should be when it reaches the end of the transmission. That way, it can correct any errors that may have occurred in the data transfer.

What does all that mean to you? Clarity. In most cases, you'll get distortion-free conversations and of teenage clearer TV pictures. You'll get more, too. Proposal. The nature of introduction, digital technology allows it to cram lots of those 1s and 0s together into the same space an analog signal uses. Example Of An Outline Of An. Like your button-rich phone at work or your 200-plus digital cable service, that means more features can be crammed into introduction the digital signal. Compare your simple home phone with the one you may have at the office. At home you have mute, redial, and maybe a few speed-dial buttons.

Your phone at work is loaded with function keys, call transfer buttons, and on disclosure in sweden and effects even voice mail. Now, before audiophiles start yelling at me through their PC screens, yes, analog can deliver better sound quality than digital…for now. Thesis. Digital offers better clarity, but analog gives you richer quality. Essays Determinants Components Savings Countries. But like any new technology, digital has a few shortcomings. Since devices are constantly translating, coding, and reassembling your voice, you won't get the same rich sound quality as you do with analog. And for introduction pregnancy now, digital is still relatively expensive. But slowly, digital#151;like the example of an essay VCR or the CD#151;is coming down in cost and coming out in everything from cell phones to satellite dishes.

When you're shopping in the telecom world, you often see products touted as all digital. Or warnings such as analog lines only. What does it mean? The basic analog and digital technologies vary a bit in definition depending on how they're implemented. Read on. Analog lines, also referred to introduction of teenage as POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), support standard phones, fax machines, and modems.

These are the lines typically found in your home or small office. Digital lines are found in large, corporate phone systems. How do you tell if the phone line is analog or digital? Look at on disclosure in sweden and effects the back of the telephone connected to it. If you see complies with part 68, FCC Rules and a Ringer Equivalence Number (REN), then the phone and the line are analog. Also, look at the phone's dialpad. Are there multiple function keys? Do you need to dial 9 for an outside line? These are indicators that the introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy phone and determinants components savings the line are digital. A word of caution.

Though digital lines carry lower voltages than analog lines, they still pose a threat to your analog equipment. If you're thinking of pregnancy, connecting your phone, modem, or fax machine to example outline of an essay your office's digital phone system, DON'T! At the very least, your equipment may not function properly. In the worst case, you could zap your communications tools into oblivion. How? Let's say you connect your home analog phone to your office's digital line. When you lift the introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy receiver, the phone tries to example outline of an essay draw an electrical current to operate.

Typically this is introduction of teenage regulated by proposal examples, the phone company's central office. Since the typical proprietary digital phone system has no facilities to regulate the current being drawn through it, your analog phone can draw too much current#151;so much that it either fries itself or in rare cases, damages the phone system's line card. What to do? There are digital-to-analog adapters that not only let you use analog equipment in of teenage, a digital environment, but also safeguard against frying the internal circuitry of your phone, fax, modem, or laptop. Some adapters manufactured by Konexx come designed to work with one specific piece of office equipment: phone, modem, laptop, or teleconferencer. Simply connect the adapter in between your digital line and essays determinants savings your analog device. That's it. Or you can try a universal digital-to-analog adapter such as Hello Direct's LineStein®. It works with any analog communications device. Plus, it's battery powered so you're not running extra cords all over of teenage, your office.

The very nature of digital technology#151;breaking a signal into examples binary code and recreating it on of teenage pregnancy, the receiving end#151;gives you clear, distortion-free cordless calls. Research Examples. Cordless phones with digital technology are also able to encrypt all those 1s and 0s during transmission so your conversation is safe from eavesdroppers. Plus, more power can be applied to digital signals and of teenage thus, you'll enjoy longer range on your cordless phone conversations. The advantage to analog cordless products? Well, they're a bit cheaper. And the sound quality is richer.

So unless you need digital security, why not save a few bucks and go with an analog phone? After all, in home or small office environments where you may be the in sweden and effects only cordless user, you won't have any interference issues. Keep in mind, when talking about digital and analog cordless phones, you're talking about the signals being transferred between the handset and its base. The phones themselves are still analog devices that can only introduction thesis pregnancy, be used on analog lines. Also, the range of your cordless phone#151;analog or digital#151;will always depend on gandhi jayanti, the environment. Introduction Of Teenage. Perhaps the determinants savings developing countries most effective use of the introduction of teenage pregnancy digital versus analog technology is in the booming cellular market. With new phone activations increasing exponentially, the limits of essays determinants components, analog are quickly being realized. Digital cellular lets significantly more people use their phones within a single coverage area. More data can be sent and received simultaneously by each phone user.

Plus, transmissions are more resistant to static and signal fading. And with the introduction thesis all-in-one phones out gandhi, now#151;phone, pager, voice mail, internet access#151;digital phones offer more features than their analog predecessors. Analog's sound quality is still superior#151;as some users with dual-transmission phones will manually switch to analog for better sound when they're not concerned with a crowded coverage area#151;but digital is quickly becoming the norm in the cellular market. The first thing to consider when buying analog or digital equipment is of teenage pregnancy where you'll be using it. Essays On Disclosure And Effects. If you're buying for a proprietary PBX phone system, you'll need to get the digital phone designed for thesis pregnancy that particular system. Need to connect a conferencer on your digital system? Opt for a digital-to-analog adapter. Shopping for home office equipment? Most everything you'll consider is analog. Want an all-in-one cellular phone#151;paging, voice mail, web? A digital cellular phone will deliver it all.

In fact, the only head-scratcher may be your cordless phone purchase. Looking for security and distortion-free conversations in your small office? Go with a digital 900 MHz or 2.4 GHz cordless phone. Using a cordless at home? An analog phone will give you the essay gandhi jayanti richest sound quality and usually enough range.

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family case study 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented in a case. 2. Identify the problems and introduction of teenage pregnancy, issues that arise in essays in sweden causes and effects, a case. What has gone wrong in introduction pregnancy, this situation? What needs to be addressed in order to improve the situation?

3. Essays Determinants Countries! Identify the positive and introduction, strength aspects of the essays on disclosure practices in sweden, situation. What has gone right so far? What positive elements exist in this situation? 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. What are the factors that are likely related to this situation? How do these factors have their influence on the situation? 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action. What has been shown to work in these kinds of situations? What options are available? What are the likely results of each option?

6. Seek additional information, research knowledge, resources to develop and select options. What else do we need to find out to make a viable plan? Where can we go to get this information? What did you find out when you sought this information? 7. Develop a concrete strategy. What can be tried over the next week/month? What should be tried in 6 months? 8. Identify methods for evaluating the outcomes and revising the plan. How will you know if the plan is being implemented adequately? How will you know if the plan is working? How will you revise the plan based on thesis pregnancy, different possible outcomes?

TIPS FOR FACILITATING CASE LEARNING. (adapted from McWilliam, 2000) Cases do not have right and wrong answers-they are dilemmas and complex situations. The goal is to practice the short story the necklace, problem-solving approach through exploration. Guide the discussion through the use of open-ended questions Allow the students/trainees to develop the answers to introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, questions (i.e., don't provide them with the answers and be nonjudgmental about what they say to keep them open to working it through) Encourage students/trainees to discuss with each other, rather than with you (this is essays practices in sweden, most likely if students are working in thesis pregnancy, groups of 4-6 persons each with the examples topics, facilitator circulating) Use visual aids (flipcharts, overheads, storyboards, etc.) Encourage students/trainees to examine their assumptions Discourage premature closure/solutions Periodically summarize the discussion before moving on. McWilliam, P. Introduction Of Teenage! J. (2000). Instructors Guide for outline of an essay, Lives in Progress: Case Stories in Early Intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Case 1. The Olivares Family. Case 12. Catherine.

Case 13. Coordinated Care Systems (Macro) Case 14. Mapledale School System (Prevention) CASE 1. THE OLIVARES FAMILY. Joaquín Olivares, a 38-year-old Mexican immigrant, and pregnancy, his 35-year-old wife presented to a family services agency with the complaint of family problems. The Olivares have been married for essay gandhi, twelve years and they have two children (a son aged 6 and a daughter aged 8). They have lived in the U.S. for eight years. He worked as a machine worker in a factory for thesis, five years before being recently laid off. He presently works as a day laborer.

Mrs. Olivares works as a housekeeper for a family. 1. Identify and sort through the components, relevant facts presented by the Olivares. 2. Introduction! Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise with the determinants components, Olivares. 2a. Introduction Pregnancy! How would you classify Mr. Olivares' drinking? 3. On Disclosure And Effects! Identify the positive and strengths aspects of the Olivares' situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with the Olivares. 6. Introduction Of Teenage! Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can.

7. Research Examples! Develop a strategy for social work practice with the Olivares. Thesis! Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues with the example of an essay, Olivares. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from each of the Olivares, and develop a plan for how to respond to them. Thesis Pregnancy! What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? What are the intervention goals?

7a. Does the Olivares' original nationality matter to the case? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on essay gandhi, various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with the Olivares' situation. Casey, a 24-year-old Caucasian woman, is seeking counseling for anxiety and depression that she attributes to problems in her current relationship. She and her partner have been having an increasing number of arguments recently, typically about Casey's behavior when they go out and about Casey drinking too much. In response to questions about her use of substances, Casey describes herself as a social drinker. Thesis Of Teenage! Her typical pattern is to consume 3-6 drinks during each of essay jayanti, 2-3 drinking occasions per week. She began drinking regularly (1-2 times per introduction thesis of teenage week) and heavily (to intoxication) at the age of 13, usually in the company of an older cousin or school friends. Proposal! She continued this pattern through high school but cut back during her first two years of college due to lack of money to buy alcohol and more difficult access.

During her junior and introduction of teenage pregnancy, senior years, Casey came out as a lesbian to her parents and family. She also resumed drinking heavily. Research Proposal! After graduation from college, Casey and her partner of 3 years (Angie, age 24) moved into an apartment together, as both began working full-time. Casey and Angie are out at work and with both families of origin. Casey reports that they both decreased their drinking at this point, due to concerns about their finances and introduction, interest in starting their new careers.

Both partners gradually increased the frequency and quantity of their drinking, as they became involved with a social group of savings, older (late 30's) lesbians and began routinely going to introduction pregnancy, a gay bar. 2. Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise in Casey's situation. 2a. How would you classify Casey's drinking? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Casey's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of essays developing, knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of introduction pregnancy, options and an initial plan of action for intervention with Casey. Who should be included in your work with Casey, and why?

How does Casey's identification as a lesbian affect the intervention plan/process? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and on disclosure practices and effects, select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Casey. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues with Casey. Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from her, and develop a plan for how to pregnancy, respond to questions, them. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why?

What are the intervention goals? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and introduction thesis, advocacy that are associated with Casey's situation. Marcel is a 21-year-old African-American man, self-referred for proposal, inpatient treatment due to introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, drug and alcohol abuse. He is currently unemployed, homeless, and has charges pending due to a number of research examples topics, bounced checks written over the past several months. Introduction Of Teenage Pregnancy! Marcel reports that both of his parents were drug addicts and he experienced physical, sexual, and emotional abuse throughout childhood at their hands.

His father died of liver disease at the age of 37. Marcel also reports that at the age of 14, he was kicked out of on disclosure causes, his family's home because his father suspected that he was gay. Although they live in the same town, he has not had any contact with either parent for 7 years. Marcel describes his relationship with his older sister as fair. Marcel is not presently involved in a steady relationship, but does have a network of friends in the local gay community with whom he has been staying off and on. At the time that he left home, Marcel survived by becoming involved in sexual relationships with older men, many of whom were also abusive.

He has had numerous sexual partners (both male and female) over the past 7 years, has traded sex for drugs and money, has had sex under the influence of drugs and alcohol, and has been made to introduction of teenage, have sex against his will. Marcel identifies himself as bisexual, not gay. Marcel first used alcohol at age 14, when he had his first sexual encounter with a man. He began using other drugs, including inhalants and marijuana by age 16 and amphetamines and cocaine by age 19. The Necklace! At 21, four months prior to entering treatment, he began using crack. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Marcel. 2. Of Teenage Pregnancy! Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise in Marcel's situation.

2a. What are the most immediate and critical assessment needs? 3. Essay Jayanti! Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Marcel's situation. 4. Analyze the of teenage, issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for intervention with Marcel. Who should be included in your work with Marcel, and why? How does Marcel's sexual orientation affect the intervention plan/ process? What is your reaction to his being bisexual? How do Marcel's age and ethnicity figure into the picture?

6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for essay, practice with Marcel. Be sure you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol-related issues. Pregnancy! Consider what kinds of reactions you might expect from him, and essays on disclosure practices in sweden, develop a plan to respond to them. What kinds of community referrals would you make and why? What are the intervention goals? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on of teenage, various possible outcomes.

9. Example Outline Of An! Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Marcel's situation. You are part of an ethnographic research team with the goal of helping the U.S. Census Bureau find better ways to count the introduction thesis, population of homeless individuals and research examples topics, families. Over 12 months, the team has been closely following 156 households as they move in and out of introduction thesis of teenage, various homeless situations (see Glasser, 1991). In the course of the project, the team has had over 45 separate recorded contacts with an African American man in his fifties, named Sam. Sam used heroin, cocaine, and alcohol.

He suffered from chronic liver disease and various intestinal ailments. Gandhi! He was evicted from public housing because they didn't like my friends (referring to the drug dealers) and of teenage pregnancy, he was persona non grata at the local single room occupancy (SRO) hotel. When the team first met Sam he was sleeping at friends' apartments and in the hotel lobby. A frequent fear of Sam's is that he would fall asleep and be robbed. The research team became advocates in Sam's quest for housing. Essay! At the suggestion of a team member, Sam spent several weeks in a local shelter, but the nuns asked him to leave when he wanted to keep his bed, but spent nights outside of the shelter. Pregnancy! The team helped him to essay gandhi, get a security deposit that was needed for an apartment. One of the team members went to look at pregnancy, rooms with Sam, and after a full ten months, they found a landlord who would accept him. One of the team members, a fourth year medical student, often called the essay, local hospital to find out the results of laboratory tests for Sam. The team also paid for Sam's birth certificate, which he had lost a long time before, but needed for access to some forms of housing. 1. Identify and thesis of teenage, sort through the proposal, relevant facts presented by introduction of teenage Sam's situation.

2. Identify the problems, issues, and short, concerns that arise with Sam's situation. 2a. How would you classify Sam's homelessness? 2b. What are the most pressing issues that Sam should be encouraged to assess? 3. Identify the positive and thesis pregnancy, strengths aspects of Sam's situation. 4. Short! Analyze the issues in of teenage pregnancy, terms of research, knowledge presented in the training modules.

5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for introduction, social work intervention with Sam, given your current role. 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, or resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to questions, gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Sam. Be sure that you have a concrete and introduction pregnancy, specific strategy for short, how you would address issues with Sam. Consider the reactions you might expect from Sam, and develop a plan for how to respond. What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and introduction thesis of teenage, why?

What are the intervention goals? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the aqa synoptic essay, plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for of teenage, community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Sam's situation. COZY is a shelter that houses 19 men and developing, women in a modest house, located in introduction thesis, a semi-industrialized part of a small town (see Glasser Zywiak, 2001). The building was last used as a pizza parlor, and people still come in asking for pizza.

The shelter also houses a community soup kitchen and seven additional Transitional Program beds for people who stay for up to research, two years. The people who stay at COZY feel as if they have finally arrived in a place of safety. They feel secure and can sleep safely at thesis pregnancy, night. As a result, they also feel that they can finally begin to address some of their problems. Steven came to COZY two weeks ago, after being asked to leave his aunt's home. He is a rather sad-faced man who looks considerably older than his 50 years. Steven says that he has been drinking heavily throughout all of outline of an, his life, and that he also used drugs a lot in Vietnam. He has a son living nearby whom, he is sorry to say, also appears to be a heavy drinker. Steven is very proud of his daughter (she is a teacher), and wishes that he could see his grandchildren more often. Steven is very grateful to the staff at COZY because in the two weeks that he has been with them, they took him to thesis of teenage, get a cataract operation and of an essay, he could immediately see again.

They are also helping him sort out his legal problems, since he did not show up for some court hearings. Steven feels that he could stay sober if he could stay in thesis of teenage pregnancy, a place like this. He is practices, applying for their transitional program. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Steven's situation. 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Steven's situation. 2a.

How would you classify Steven's homelessness? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Steven's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Steven. 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and introduction of teenage pregnancy, select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Steven.

Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with Steven. Consider what kinds of short story the necklace, reactions you might expect, and develop a plan for how to introduction thesis pregnancy, respond to them. What kinds of short story, referrals in your practice community would you make and thesis of teenage, why? What are the intervention goals? 8. Identify methods for jayanti, evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Steven's situation. Last week, Alexia entered the inpatient treatment program where you are a social worker. She is being treated for thesis pregnancy, alcohol and cocaine (crack) dependence. Alexia is a 32-year-old, divorced woman who is employed as an administrative assistant at a local human services program.

She lives with her 11-year-old daughter, Christine, in an apartment located near her job. Jayanti! Although she makes a relatively low salary, Alexia has managed to thesis of teenage pregnancy, support herself and her daughter without financial support from Christine's father. Alexia was married briefly to Christine's father when she was 20, but she left him after he became physically and sexually abusive toward her. He also was an on disclosure practices in sweden, alcoholic. She had almost no contact with him for introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, many years.

Her mother, a widow, is a strong support for Alexia and Christine, as are two cousins, Denise and Moira. Alexia reports growing up in a normal middle class family and states that her childhood was good despite her father's occasional drinking binges, which she says were related to aqa synoptic essay questions, him celebrating a special account he had landed (he was in advertising), and her mother's occasional bad depressions. She is the youngest of five children and the only girl. Up until a month ago, Alexia was regularly attending twice-weekly treatment sessions at an outpatient chemical dependency clinic, and she went to introduction of teenage, AA/NA regularly 3 times a week. She had a sponsor and components savings developing, they kept in touch several times a week-more, if needed. From the beginning of recovery, Alexia has experienced some mild depression. She describes having little pleasure in life and feeling tired and dragging all of the time. Introduction Thesis Of Teenage Pregnancy! Alexia reports that her difficulty in standing up for herself with her boss at work is a constant stressor.

She persisted with treatment and proposal, AA/NA, but has seen no major improvement in how she feels. After Alexia had been sober for about 3 months, an older boy sexually assaulted Christine after school. Alexia supported Christine through the prosecution process; the case was tried in juvenile court and the boy returned to school 2 months later. After Alexia celebrated her 6-month sobriety anniversary, she reports that she started having a harder time getting herself up each day. Around this same time, she returned to drinking daily. She says that she then started experiencing bouts of feeling worthless, sad, guilty, hopeless, and very anxious. Her sleep problems increased, she began having nightmares, and introduction of teenage pregnancy, she lost her appetite.

After a month of this, she started attending AA/NA and treatment less often, instead staying home and watching TV. She started her crack use again one night after her boss got very upset with her not finishing something on time. She went to a local bar after work that day and hooked up with a guy she met there to get crack. In accompanying him to a local dealer's house to essays determinants components developing, get some crack, she was raped by several men. Of Teenage Pregnancy! Alexia did not return home that night (Christine was at a friend's sleepover party) and did not show up for work the next day. She does not recall where she was the rest of essays determinants developing countries, that night.

However, later that day she admitted herself to your treatment program. Alexia reports that she began drinking regularly (several times a week) around the age of 13. Introduction! She recalls having felt depressed around the same time that she began drinking heavily, although she states she has very few clear memories of that time in essays components countries, her life. Alexia's drinking became progressively worse over the years, although she did not begin to see it as a problem. until after she began using crack, at around age 28. She reports feeling depressed over much of her adult life, however her depression got much worse after she began using crack daily.

Alexia reports having had a lot of gynecological problems during her 20s, resulting in a hysterectomy at introduction of teenage, age 27. When asked if she was ever physically or sexually abused as a child, she says no; however, she confesses (with some difficulty) that when she was 11, she had an on disclosure practices in sweden causes and effects, affair with her 35-year-old uncle (father's brother-in-law). Now, one week into introduction of teenage pregnancy, treatment, Alexia reports feeling numb and example of an outline of an, tense. She talks only in women's treatment groups and, then, only when specifically asked a question. She feels hopeless about her ability to put her life together and says that she only sees herself failing again to introduction thesis, achieve sobriety. Of her recent rape, she says that she only got what she deserved for being in the wrong place with the wrong people at the wrong time. Alexia reflects that she was unable to adequately protect her daughter from sexual assault, and she speculates that maybe she is an unfit mother and should give up custody of her daughter.

While Christine is currently staying with Alexia's mother, Alexia is concerned that her ex-husband will try to get custody of Christine if he hears that she is in the hospital for alcohol and drug treatment. Questions! He has been in recovery himself for two years and began demanding to of teenage pregnancy, see Christine again about jayanti, 2 months ago. 1. Identify and introduction of teenage, sort through the relevant facts presented by Alexia. 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Alexia's situation. 2a. What are the most pressing issues that Alexia should be encouraged to assess and address? 3. Identify the research proposal, positive and strengths aspects of Alexia's situation. 4. Pregnancy! Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in essay, the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and of teenage, an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Alexia. Who should be involved in the intervention for Alexia? Who should also be referred for intervention?

6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and of an of an essay, resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Alexia. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues. What are the intervention goals? Following inpatient treatment, what kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why?

8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and introduction thesis of teenage, advocacy that are associated with Alexia's situation. Jaclyn is 23 years old and essay gandhi jayanti, is four months pregnant. She is visiting a comprehensive wrap around services health clinic for introduction, prenatal care for examples topics, the first time. The medical team advises prenatal nutritional counseling and vitamins, and assesses her pregnancy as progressing normally at this stage.

However, she has been referred to you because in the health assessment she responded that she has always consumed one or two drinks, almost every day, when she comes home from work to unwind from the stress of her job. There are also social events on weeknights and weekends with family and introduction, friends that typically involve light to moderate drinking. 1. Identify and on disclosure practices and effects, sort through the relevant facts presented by Jaclyn's situation. What tools, approaches, or interviewing strategies would you use with a pregnant woman to assess her drinking and its impact? What other issues should be assessed, as well? 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Jaclyn's situation. 2a. Introduction Thesis Of Teenage Pregnancy! What information should you be certain is determinants countries, shared with Jaclyn? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Jaclyn's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of introduction of teenage, knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of questions, action for social work intervention with Jaclyn.

Who should be involved in the intervention for Jaclyn? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Jaclyn. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with Jaclyn. Of Teenage Pregnancy! What are the intervention goals? What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and why? 7a. What alternatives to drinking during pregnancy can you explore with Jaclyn? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on questions, various possible outcomes.

9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Jaclyn's situation. Robert is a 32-year-old businessman who was involved in a car accident on his way home after having a couple of drinks at the local bar. He was referred for evaluation and treatment because at the time of the thesis pregnancy, accident, his blood alcohol test showed .09, which was above the legal limit. He is overweight and in sweden, tends to pregnancy, have high blood pressure. He grew up in the neighborhood where he and proposal topics, his wife now live. They have two children, ages 6 and 4 years. Robert has several childhood friends who come to pregnancy, the bar, almost every day during the week, to have drinks and essays determinants components savings countries, socialize. His father is also a frequent visitor to the bar, and has been for the past 40 years. Robert's father drinks 4 to thesis of teenage, 5 drinks when he is at the bar, but he does not seem to have any significant problems related to essays practices causes and effects, drinking, except for his hypertension.

Robert drinks 3 to 5 beers at the bar, but he does not feel that he has any drinking problems because he does not drink at home except for wine with his evening meal. 1. Identify and thesis of teenage pregnancy, sort through the relevant facts presented by Robert's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess his drinking and its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why?

2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Robert's situation. 2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Robert? Why? 2b. What is your advice to Robert concerning his drinking? Why? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of essay jayanti, Robert's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of thesis, knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Jayanti! Use training materials to develop a list of options and introduction of teenage, an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Robert.

Who should be involved in essays savings developing, the intervention for Robert? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Introduction Thesis Pregnancy! Develop a strategy for social work practice with Robert. Be sure that you have a concrete and specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with Robert. Story! What are the intervention goals?

What kinds of referrals in your practice community would you make and introduction, why? 7a. What alternatives to drinking can you explore with Robert? 8. Identify methods for on disclosure practices, evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Thesis Of Teenage Pregnancy! Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Robert's situation. Ms. Cook is on disclosure practices causes, a 28-year-old African American woman who voluntarily approached your primary provider agencies for substance abuse treatment services. Introduction Of Teenage! She is of an, currently on probation for shoplifting, passing bad checks, vandalism, and parole/probation violations. She has been charged four times with disorderly conduct, once for fishing without a license, and twice for driving without a license (she never applied for one). She is of teenage, currently awaiting trial for battery.

Ms. Cook has been incarcerated twice during her adulthood (once for 10 months and, most recently, for 10 days). The results of an AUDIT-13 screening suggested that she was binge drinking weekly during the example essay, past year. The screening also determined that, because of introduction thesis, drinking/drug use, she had injured herself (2 falls requiring medical care) and questions, someone else (killed the cat by accidental poisoning), and that others had recommended that she seek help. Screening for co-occurring problems using the thesis pregnancy, MPSI-A indicated potential depression and other psychological distress.

An assessment using the ASI-F was conducted that same day and revealed that Ms. Essay Jayanti! Cook was currently living with her grandmother, who had raised her. She is the mother of four children (ages 11, 7, 4, 2 years-she was 17 at of teenage pregnancy, the birth of her first child). The older two sons are living in foster care. The younger two daughters have complex health problems and developmental delays; they live with another relative. She is no longer in contact with any of the children's fathers (three men), and was only briefly married to the second man. She reported that both of her parents, several uncles and aunts, and both of her siblings all have significant drinking and/or drug use problems. She has no close friends and savings developing countries, a distant, conflicted relationship with family members other than the grandmother with whom she has almost always lived.

She has great difficulty in thesis of teenage pregnancy, getting along with people. She was physically abused as a child, which prompted her move to essays determinants countries, the grandmother's home. Ms. Cook completed all but one year of high school, and received specialized training as a welder, but her most recent job was as a parking attendant. Her longest period of continuous employment was just over introduction thesis, one year, and she has worked irregularly throughout her adult life. Short The Necklace! She describes her present health as good and she has a history of thesis pregnancy, depression, anxiety, hallucinations, cognitive and memory deficits, and violent behavior. She has never received psychiatric care. 1. Essays On Disclosure Practices In Sweden And Effects! Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by thesis of teenage pregnancy Ms.

Cook's situation. 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Ms. Cook's situation. 2a. What are the most pressing issues that Ms. Cook should be encouraged to address? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Ms. Cook's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in essay questions, terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Ms. Cook.

6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Ms. Cook. Gandhi! Be sure that you have a concrete and pregnancy, specific strategy for how you would address issues with Ms. Cook. What are the intervention goals? How should the service plan be developed and implemented? 7a. What are the various service components with which Ms.

Cook is/should be involved and essays determinants components savings developing countries, that must be coordinated? How will they be coordinated? What is the proper forum for interaction amongst these service providers? Who should be involved? 7b. What services are needed but not being received?

How will they be obtained? 7c. What are the appropriate roles of each service component? 8. Identify methods for thesis, evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. Who should be responsible for monitoring the service plan?

9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Ms. Cook's situation. 10. How would the situation be different if Ms. Cook entered the substance abuse treatment system via the child welfare or criminal justice systems? Dave is a 38-year-old small-parts factory worker who came into jayanti, the treatment center after being arrested for introduction thesis, drinking and driving (DUI/DWI).

His attorney has suggested that he quit drinking and research proposal topics, enter treatment, at introduction of teenage, least until his trial which is scheduled in two months. Dave does not anticipate serving jail time, but he believes that treatment could strengthen his legal case. After his first arrest for DUI two years ago, he simply paid a fine and determinants components developing, attended a special driver's education program for six weeks. Dave found the program to be a waste of time. Dave's work history is of teenage pregnancy, very good; he misses less than one day per essay gandhi year. He works the introduction thesis of teenage, day shift on weekdays, putting in time-and-a-half overtime on most Saturdays. He is well regarded by his supervisors and peers at work. He is fearful that his employer will find out about his treatment (it is being covered by gandhi jayanti his HMO), and that people at work will learn about the second DUI arrest.

1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Dave's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess his drinking and thesis of teenage pregnancy, its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why? 2. Example Outline Of An! Identify the introduction of teenage pregnancy, problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Dave's situation. 2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Dave?

Why? 2b. What is research examples topics, your advice to introduction thesis of teenage, Dave concerning his drinking? Why? 2c. How would you assess motivational issues prior to and during the course of intervention with Dave?

3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Dave's situation. 4. Example Outline Of An! Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Use training materials to develop a list of options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Dave. What are reasonable outcomes to introduction thesis of teenage, be expected with Dave? Who should be involved in the intervention for Dave? Why? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Dave. Be sure that you have a concrete and gandhi jayanti, specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues. What are the intervention goals?

What kinds of pregnancy, referrals in your practice community would you make and the necklace essay, why? 7a. What measures and procedures would you employ to formulate and negotiate goals with Dave? 7b. How would you apply motivational, cognitive behavioral, and relationship therapy approaches with Dave? 8. Identify methods for evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes.

9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Dave's situation. 10. What elements would be different in pregnancy, this case if Dave were, instead: (a) a woman, (b) a white collar professional, (c) elderly, (d) single, (e) divorced, (f) a member of an historically stereotyped, oppressed ethnic group? Sal Franco is a 74-year old man, living alone in an apartment complex for proposal examples, older adults. You are the Senior Services social worker associated with the housing units. Sal and his wife, Maria, owned and operated a small, local grocery for 44 years (they emigrated from introduction thesis, Italy when they were newlyweds at age 19).

They sold the business to their son Dominic when Sal turned 70. Proposal Topics! The plan was to enjoy travel and retired life together. However, shortly after retiring, Maria was diagnosed with an aggressive leukemia, and she died within 4 months. Mr. Franco has been living alone for over 3 years. Because Sal and Maria spent most of their time working and involved with family activities, there are few close friends in his life. Dominic's family has Sal to dinner every Sunday, but has little time during the week because of competing demands.

Sal's other children include a daughter living in introduction thesis, another state who calls daily (but seldom visits because of the cost), a daughter oversees in military service, and a son with Down's Syndrome who lives in a group home about an short story the necklace, hour away. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Sal Franco's situation. What tools would you use to assess his drinking and introduction thesis pregnancy, its impact? What do you assess his drinking risk to be? Why? 2. Identify the problems, issues, and concerns that arise with Sal's situation.

2a. What information should you be certain is shared with Sal? Why? 2b. What is your advice to Sal concerning his drinking? Why? 2c. What other assessments need to components, be conducted? Why? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Sal's situation.

4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules. 5. Introduction Of Teenage! Use training materials to determinants components savings developing, develop a list of options and an initial plan of introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, action for gandhi jayanti, social work intervention with Sal. Who should be involved in the intervention for Sal? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for social work practice with Mr. Introduction Thesis Of Teenage! Franco. Be sure that you have a concrete and short story the necklace essay, specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with him. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of introduction of teenage pregnancy, referrals in your practice community would you make and why? What additional activities would you help him initiate? 7a.

What alternatives to drinking can you explore with Sal? 7b. What other services or programs should be engaged for Sal? How? 7c.

How should Sal's physical health, mental health, and social services be coordinated? 8. Identify methods for on disclosure, evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on thesis, various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and advocacy that are associated with Mr. Franco's situation. CASE 12. CATHERINE. Catherine Jackson is a 67-year-old woman, living alone in a mixed housing project. For the past month, she has received visiting nurse services from on disclosure practices in sweden causes and effects, your agency.

These services were assigned to her upon discharge from the hospital with a diagnosis of anemia and uncontrolled adult-onset diabetes. The nursing care will terminate at the end of the introduction pregnancy, week, as Catherine's foot sores are beginning to heal. Outline Of An Essay! During two separate visits, the nurse reports that she smelled alcohol, but Ms. Jackson did not appear to pregnancy, be intoxicated. When the nurse asked about aqa synoptic questions, her drinking, Catherine responded, Oh, I don't drink very much, really.

I just seem so tired all the time and a little medicinal drink now and then makes me feel better. 1. Identify and sort through the relevant facts presented by Catherine's situation. What tools or interviewing strategies would you use to assess her drinking and of teenage pregnancy, its impact? What do you assess her drinking risk to be? Why? 2. Identify the problems, issues, concerns that arise with Catherine Jackson's situation.

2a. Gandhi! What other assessments need to be conducted? 2b. What is your advice to Catherine concerning her drinking? Why? 3. Identify the positive and strengths aspects of Catherine's situation. 4. Analyze the issues in terms of knowledge presented in the training modules.

5. Use training materials to develop a list of of teenage, options and an initial plan of action for social work intervention with Ms. Jackson. Who should be involved in the intervention for her? 6. Identify any additional information, research knowledge, and resources that are needed to essay gandhi, develop and select options; identify ways to gather what you need; gather what you can. 7. Develop a strategy for practice with Catherine Jackson.

Be sure that you have a concrete and introduction of teenage, specific strategy for how you would address alcohol issues with her. What are the intervention goals? What kinds of community referrals would you make and why? 7a. How would you ensure that Catherine's care and multiple services are appropriately coordinated? Who should be in charge of coordination? 8. Identify methods for determinants countries, evaluating outcomes of your plan and next steps/revisions of the plan, depending on various possible outcomes. 9. Discuss implications for community intervention, prevention planning, social policy reform, and introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, advocacy that are associated with Catherine's situation. CASE 13: COORDINATED CARE SERVICES (MACRO) Your State Chapter of NASW is hosting a one-day round table session to which members of substance abuse treatment and advocacy agencies are invited, and gandhi jayanti, you are the chairperson. The goal is to respond to a grant request that will support the development of a coordinated service system for abused women, needing shelter, who have alcohol use problems.

The first set of introduction thesis of teenage, tasks includes: Identify the necessary participants (service providers) of the coordinated system; Determine who will be responsible for the prescreening, screening, assessment, treatment, and evaluation responsibilities; Determine who will make referrals, to whom they will make them, and under what circumstances; Identify the community service partners that will serve as additional resources, act as supportive adjuncts, and will also serve as entry points by essays on disclosure practices in sweden causes and effects conducting the appropriate prescreening assessments for clients that come to introduction pregnancy, them (e.g., child welfare, corrections, health care, employment services); Identify natural helping systems that should be connected to of an, the system; Identify which service provider(s) will be responsible for service coordination. Later tasks will emerge, including developing time lines, budgets, policies, and procedures. The ultimate goal for each client in the system is to introduction of teenage, be able to follow through on the guidelines offered by Thompson (1993): 1. Story Essay! List all services that the client receives from each agency involved; 2. Identify key agencies and services needed but not represented;

3. Establish a contact person within each agency; 4. Agree on a structure for the case planning group; 5. Define the roles and responsibilities of introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, each agency; 6. Monitor the implementation of the care plan; 7. Periodically evaluate the relevance and essay gandhi, effectiveness of the plan. CASE 14. MAPLEDALE SCHOOL SYSTEM (PREVENTION) You have been asked to consult with a group from the introduction, Mapledale School system, comprised of business people, police, social workers, teachers, parents, administrators, and student representatives (Middle School, High School, and Community College).

The group is interested in selecting and implementing an alcohol abuse prevention program for their community. They want you to determinants savings developing countries, advise them on how to go about selecting the best program(s) to introduction thesis pregnancy, invest in-they are not interested in research examples topics, having you pick their programs, only in advising them as to what to look for. Robbie J., a 19-year-old white male and first-year college student, suffered a significant brain injury 6 months ago as a result of introduction of teenage, a car accident. Robbie had been partying at essay jayanti, a friend's house and left about 1:00 a. m. Of Teenage Pregnancy! Driving home, he missed a curve in the road and rolled his car. Robbie's parents knew that their son drank occasionally, but they never thought he had a problem.

They had purchased a car for him and warned him of the dangers of drinking and driving. Prior to the accident, Robbie had been a gregarious young man. In high school he had been a good student, popular, and played on the football team. Robbie loved skiing, skin diving, and riding dirt bikes. Robbie's rehabilitation has been arduous. His parents are still in disbelief. Robbie's father is a prominent corporate attorney, and Robbie had always expressed a desire to follow the same career path.

Robbie's mother divided her time between caring for her husband and son and her volunteer work on behalf of abused and essays determinants components developing, neglected children in the community. Since his injury, Robbie's mother has spent most of her time caring for him and participating in his rehabilitation. His father is spending longer hours at work and misses the introduction of teenage pregnancy, time he spent hunting, fishing, and research proposal examples, playing golf with his son. Though supportive at thesis of teenage, first, his friends are calling less and of an outline of an essay, less and rarely come around. Both parents were stunned to introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, learn that Robbie and some of gandhi jayanti, his friends got drunk nearly every weekend. This information surfaced during a family counseling session conducted by a social worker on the rehabilitation team who had recently attended a seminar on screening and introduction thesis of teenage, brief intervention for alcohol and other drug problems.

Robbie's parents had a hard time believing it was true, but after questioning Robbie's friends, they learned that this was indeed the situation. The brain damage Robert sustained has affected his impulse control and decreased his short-term memory and ability to concentrate. Robbie's emotional affect is topics, labile. At times he laughs out loud; the next moment he may be crying. He has limited insight into his own behavior and introduction of teenage pregnancy, how he has changed, so it is difficult for him to understand why his friends and family react to story essay, him differently now. Very few things sustain Robbie's attention; even watching TV is not pleasurable. Introduction Thesis! The muscle weakness on his right side limits his ability to participate in many of the athletic activities he enjoyed previously. Robbie is on an emotional roller coaster. Short Story The Necklace Essay! At one level he knows that his plans for the future have to change.

At another level, he cannot accept these limitations. He wants things to be the way they were. Thesis! His condition makes it impossible for example of an essay, him to return to a successful college experience. He resents his parents' constant supervision, and feels that they are treating him like a baby. He says no girl will want to date him with this kind of interference. Most of his friends are back at introduction of teenage, college, so he has begun to hang out with a younger group and drink again. Robbie is frustrated with the difficulty he has in remembering, expressing himself, and research proposal examples, concentrating. He is restless and agitated sometimes, both as a result of his frustration and the organic aspect of his injuries. Robbie's parents can afford high quality treatment, but Robbie does not always comply with the treatment regimen. What are the introduction, relevant facts in Robbie's case (e.g., What is actually happening here)? Identify the research proposal examples topics, problems and issues that are arising in Robbie's case (e.g., What has gone wrong in this situation? and What needs to be addressed in order to improve the situation?) Identify the positive and strengths aspects of the situation (e.g., What has gone right so far? and What positive elements exist in this situation?) Analyze the issues in terms of introduction thesis of teenage, knowledge presented in the training modules (e.g., What are the factors, such as development stages, that are likely related to the situation? and, How do these factors influence the situation?) Use training materials to develop a list of options and research proposal examples topics, an initial plan of action (e.g., What has been shown to work in these kinds of thesis pregnancy, situations where substance abuse and short the necklace essay, a traumatic brain injury are involved? and What options are available? and What are the likely results of each option?) Seek additional information, research knowledge, and resources needed to develop and select options (e.g., What else do we need to find out to make a viable plan for Robbie and introduction thesis of teenage, his parents? and Where can we go to get this information? and What did you find out when out when you sought this information?

Are integrated programs for addressing alcohol abuse and TBI available in the community?) Develop a concrete strategy for Robbie and his parents (e.g., What can be tried over the next weeks/months? How can you help the parents come to terms with the situation? How can you help Robbie address his drinking and research examples, make realistic plans for the future?) Identify methods for evaluating the outcomes and revising the plan (e.g., How will you know whether or not the plan is introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, being implemented adequately? and How will you know if the plan is working? and How will you revise the plan based on different possible outcomes?) *Instructors may wish to revise this case in terms of the client's gender, age, ethnicity, family socioeconomic status and access to treatment resources, functional area(s) of the brain affected and severity of the brain injury (for information, see the website of the example of an of an, Brain Injury Association of America: http://www.biausa.org/), or other factors. Introduction Thesis! When using the case in the classroom, students may be divided into groups. Proposal Topics! Each group can be given a different set of client characteristics. When presenting their responses to the class, students can note whether or how the approaches taken would differ depending on thesis of teenage pregnancy, the client's characteristics and circumstances.

Updated: March 2005. NIAAA: Understanding the impact of alcohol on human health and well-being.

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Custom Policy Evaluation essay paper. Policies refer to what the government intends to introduction thesis pregnancy, do or not to. On the other, hand policy evaluation refers to means by which judgments on quality, goal achievement, program effectiveness and its impact on costs are determined. The main objective of policy evaluation is to aqa synoptic essay, determine whether a given policy is introduction effective or not. It encompasses a high-level overall plan that is embraced and guided by the overall goals and acceptable procedures.

Any policy evaluation method in education should enable the educators to design, conduct and report the findings of the research adequately for it to address the key issues at practices in sweden causes and effects hand. It should also address the critical issues of evaluation (Donna M. Mertens, 2004). For a long time now, education has been involved with reproduction of values and knowledge, but it is evident that it also acts as a vehicle for the achievement of thesis, larger mobility and socioeconomic changes (Álvarez Ruiz-Casares, 1998). Basic education is gandhi a human right for everyone and this was meant to change the individual’s perception of the world on top of developing him mentally, psychologically and morally. Introduction Thesis Of Teenage Pregnancy. This has led it to of an, be the of teenage pregnancy, major factor affecting the social ladder. This has led the example outline essay, effort to improve on individuals living standards to be fought in introduction of teenage classrooms first (The Economist, 1997). Conducting of scientifically rigorous evaluation of education is always complex. On Disclosure Practices In Sweden. Program evaluations should always be grounded on scientific based research and should assist us in making significant decisions regarding our system (McKay, Linda, 2007). Any scientific based research employs systematic and empirical methods that draw on the observation and experiment to make its findings. This scientific study uses accurate measurements and observations coupled by data analysis to support its general findings, which are the key to the recommendations and policy development. It also ensures that, studies and methods involved present sufficient details necessary for systematic building on the research.

It should also obtain acceptance by a panel of independent experts through a comparatively rigorous, objective and scientific review. Lastly, it uses research designs and methods appropriately to tackle the problem at hand (McKay, Linda, 2007). There exist many barriers that hinder effective policy evaluation. These barriers include those of specifying the goals and goal change, measurement, efficiency and effectiveness, values and evaluation, the introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, politics and lastly, the increasing requirements for evaluation techniques (McKay, Linda, 2007). Any educational evaluation policy should therefore address these problems adequately and effectively. This therefore, leads to clear cut goals which do not include political biases and individual bias, which is the proposal examples topics, main starting point of introduction thesis, these evaluation procedures. These objectives should also show a wide range of competing interests and the necklace, clear understanding of potential policy (Mertens, Donna M.,2004). Any educational improvement programs should have clear cut objectives and introduction pregnancy, goals and gandhi jayanti, should ensure the effectiveness and introduction pregnancy, efficiency in the allocation and usage of the available resources without the strain to all the parties involved. Determinants Components. In addition it should be devoid of any biases and should be addressing the inadequacies in the job market which are in line with the countries mission and vision. Although knowledge is an excellent example illustrating the inputs and output of the economy, in development sense it form an essential point of reference for national policy. Education is valued as an investment, as opposed to expenditure (OECD, 1996).

The Indian education commission (1964-66) emphasized the need for quality education and its contribution to thesis of teenage pregnancy, national development. The commission observed that the quality, competence and character of teachers are the most notable attributes in any education evaluation policies. Therefore, any education policy method should cater for professional training of teachers as implementers of these policies at the classroom level. This way the efficiency and the necklace, effectiveness of educational institutions is improved by this teacher education (Mahender Reddy Sarsani, 2006). On the onset of the evaluation process, the initial policy goals should be looked so as to guide the process of evaluation. Introduction Of Teenage. Every evaluation process should therefore be guided by essay questions, the dynamics of knowledge, the need of practice, philosophical and ideological precepts (OECD, 1996). In addition, the evaluation method should try to strengthen the capacity of the society as a whole so as to intervene in projects of collective interest in education and those that determine its destiny. The role of the evaluator in the process should also be re visited to determine how broad or narrow the scope of study is (OECD, 2004).

In addition to above a good educational evaluation method should be the one that regards ingredients of knowledge, values and utopias as its core to the process.in addition it should also strive to reduce the introduction, disparity of human resources in the national and international market, reduce the inequality observed in each of the country involved and most importantly it should reduce the example outline of an, obstacles in advancement of knowledge from the learning institutions catering for the young generation. In any country the introduction thesis, young generation is the most important asset for the achievement of the examples topics, long term development goals growth and assuring of continued competitiveness in of teenage the global market. These young generations is considered the most important investment in the society today (OECD, 1996). Therefore the resources that are availed for these generations and their growth should be given the outmost priority hey regard. For example in the evaluation of teachers the criteria is drawn from the professional practice, current research and the expectations of the society served by the teacher. And finally the organization conducting and instruments of gandhi, measure to be used need to be known well in advance. It’s therefore very important for the educational evaluation policies to cater for the general and specific needs for them in order to invest in the human capital of the country. In order to address these issues effectively evaluation method is introduction thesis of teenage needed to essay jayanti, monitor the effectiveness of introduction, these policies. In order to monitor these policies some methods of process evaluation have been developed. There are four models of policy evaluation techniques, namely the process evaluation, outcome evaluation, impact evaluation and cost benefit evaluation (The Pennsylvania State University, 2011). The process evaluation analyses the degree in which a policy or a program is administered.

It tries to determine the reasons why a system is performing at of an the current state and tries to identify the problems for that case. After identification of the introduction thesis of teenage pregnancy, problems, the process evaluation tries to essay questions, solve and give the thesis, recommendations of improvement of the policy in the present and for the future. In Sweden. This type of of teenage pregnancy, evaluation is commonly used by program managers in determination of improvement process of program implementation and service delivery. It does not address the issues of essay, whether or not the system is achieving the desired results in the general population (The Pennsylvania State University, 2011). It’s therefore very important for the process evaluation method to introduction of teenage pregnancy, have a method of evaluating its impact on the general population. It should also suggest the ways of aqa synoptic essay, dealing with these problems if they do arise.

Outcome evaluation concerns itself with the impact of the policy to the general society. Its measures how the society and their circumstances change and whether the policy experience has been a factor in causing this change. Depending on pregnancy, the extent of the policy implementation then Outcome evaluation can be conducted by use of either randomized controlled trials, using comparison groups or by the use of pre-post comparison. Essay. Among the three, randomized controlled trials and comparison groups and designs are relatively more resource intensive and complicated to conduct in relation to pre-post comparisons. They also provide us with rich information that is useful for thesis of teenage pregnancy policies in the other areas of the economy (The Pennsylvania State University, 2011). The only limitation to the outcome evaluation is the availability of resources. It should be noted that the purpose of the research determines the choice of the education research methodology to be used (WHO, 2002). The impact evaluation is meant to essay questions, determine whether or not a given public policy is thesis pregnancy achieving its intended purpose as visualized earlier by policy makers. Short The Necklace Essay. The goals evaluated should be the tangible and intangible ones. This kind of evaluation mainly deals with the theoretical and actual goals of the policy.

It also looks at the objectives and compares them to the policy results. Any additional gains not envisioned are noted and recorded. Any impact evaluation in the education system should incorporate all the stakeholders involved. Lastly, the cost-benefit analysis is involved with the comparison of the cost incurred during the policy evaluation to the benefits generated by the policy. These costs can be in terms of introduction of teenage, tangible and intangible ones. The cost benefit analysis is story the necklace essay generally accepted and widely used since the actual costs of the policy can easily be obtained, quantified and evaluated. On the other hand, the intangible results can be seen either immediately or many years after the study. The intangible results are the ones that cannot be quantified using any known physical means but can be looked at thesis as the value added to the end product while it is on disclosure in sweden passing through the system (The Pennsylvania State University, 2011). Therefore any evaluation method should look at of teenage the end products value as the evaluator of the systems success or failure. As the education reforms proposals continue to be undertaken and implemented, the gandhi, role of the government changes from that of the administrator to that of an evaluator and policy maker (Donna M. Mertens, 2004). If the country does not have an effective education system then it will not have the competent, productive, and competitive work force necessary to maintain and thesis, improve economic performance and prosperity (Guthrie, 1991).

Policy evaluation in the education sector should therefore be performed when there is a need to address the greater concern not envisioned earlier in time by the current policy. The policy evaluation method should therefore include the unforeseen changes in the country’s economy. It should be noted that the commitment of the of an outline of an essay, government to provide cognitive skills for pregnancy its citizen should not be limited to transient adjustments made to education systems but should incorporate long term effects on the pattern and distribution of both resources and responsibilities (OECD, 1998). The changing trends in the global economies acts as catalysts for the need to determinants components developing countries, undertake an education policy reforms. In that, for any economy to be competitive it has to keep itself up to date with these changes inform of improving the quality of the education systems and therefore, upgrading its human resources (Álvarez Ruiz-Casares, 1998). Policy discussions about economic growth and national competitiveness focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce (Plank, 2009). Therefore, any policy evaluation method should cater for the countries workforce in terms of the needs today, tomorrow and the anticipated workforce in the future. Another major concern to introduction, the development of education policy evaluation is the relation of determinants developing countries, accountability to schooling. It’s widely known fact that, high accountability rates lead to high retention rates, progression rates and relatively higher performance. The study on states with accountability indicated that states with high accountability ratio show higher performance than the states with low accountability or no accountability at all (Ravitch, 2005).The only introduction thesis of teenage misunderstanding about accountability is the practices causes and effects, case of failing schools and students where the blame is mainly levied on the teachers and administration which is not relatively the case.it should also be noted that for a policy to be more effective the duration between actual policy evaluation and the implementation should be relatively close.

It is also crucial for the policy to have a strong policy commitment and its objectives to be real (OECD, 2004). In relation to the above, it's therefore vital for introduction thesis of teenage the policy to be implemented immediately after the assessment and example essay, recommendations have been generated. Classroom evaluation can be summative or formative. In summative evaluation, description is done without reference to treatment while in formative it’s used for diagnosis, monitoring, motivating and for guiding remedial actions. The outcomes of schooling system need a definite method that they can be assessed. The national assessments are considered necessary in the addressing of the factor of efficiency of the system (Donna M. Mertens, 2004).

In Cases where the problem of increasing enrollment perseveres then it’s usually necessary to obtain the information in terms of inputs and introduction of teenage, corresponding outputs. It's therefore essential that the education evaluation method to essays in sweden causes, cater for the different aspects of learning other than just the classroom learning. In conclusion, the evaluation of education plays a pivotal role in the learning mechanism of nations. This is in terms of competitiveness in the global market, positioning itself in the path of continued growth and in terms of improved human capital. Evaluation also acts as an instrument of social learning and behavioral modification.

Therefore any policy evaluation method should address all the issues tacked above. It should therefore address the issues of significance and social usefulness, orientation towards the future and should also be precise. The quality of evaluation is an indispensable prerequisite for its reliability and use (OECD, 1998).